Macular Degeneration

Macular Degeneration is caused by the deterioration of the central portion of the membrane, the within back layer of the attention that records the pictures we see and sends them via the cranial nerve from the attention to the brain. The retina’s central portion, referred to as the macula, is chargeable for focusing vision within the eye, and it controls our ability to scan, drive a automobile, acknowledge faces or colors, and see objects in fine detail. degeneration is that the causes area unit advanced, however embody each heredity and setting. Dry degeneration is diagnosed once when yellowish spots referred to as drusen begin to accumulate in and round the macula. it's believed these spots area unit deposits or scrap from deteriorating tissue.

Age-related degeneration typically produces a slow, painless loss of vision. In rare cases, however, vision loss are often sharp. Early signs of vision loss from AMD embody shadowy areas in your vision or outstandingly fuzzy or distorted vision. Treatments for degeneration rely upon whether or not the malady is in its early-stage, dry type or within the additional advanced, wet type that may result in serious vision loss. No FDA-approved treatments exist yet for dry macular degeneration, though biological process intervention might facilitate stop its progression to the wet type.

Related Societies:

Colombian Society of medicine | Danish Ophthalmological Society | Egyptian Ophthalmological Society



Ophthalmology is that the specialty involved with the medical and surgical care of the eye. Ophthalmologists are experts in medical treatment, surgery and microsurgery for eye conditions and diseases in addition to diagnosing systemic disease that manifest in eye signs or symptoms. Ophthalmology has many subspecialties.

Related Societies:

Academy of Asia-Pacific Professors of Ophthalmology | Afghanistan Society of Ophthalmology | African Ophthalmology Council (AOC) | All-Russian Association of Ophthalmologists | American Academy of Ophthalmology | American Ophthalmological Society | Argentinian Society of Ophthalmology | ASEAN Ophthalmology Society (AOS, Finnish Ophthalmological Society


A cataract is a cloudy area within the lens of the eye. Signs may have cataracts can include symptoms of decreased night vision, halos around lights, discolored vision, or sensitivity to glare.

There are 3 different types of cataract, namely:

A subscapular cataract occurs at the back of the lens. People with diabetes or those taking high doses of steroid medications have a greater risk of developing a subscapular cataract.

A nuclear cataract forms deep within the central zone (nucleus) of the lens. Nuclear cataracts usually are associated with aging.

A plant tissue cataract is characterised by white, wedge-like opacities that begin within the edge of the lens and work their thanks to the middle in a very spoke-like fashion. this kind of cataract happens within the lens cortex, which is the part of the lens that surrounds the central nucleus.

Cataract begins slowly and at first has little or no impact on the vision. Cataract-surgery is that the commonest eye surgery conducted worldwide.

Related Societies:

Asia Pacific Association of Cataract Refractive Surgeons (APACRS) | International Uveitis Study Group | Pacific Eye Care Society (PacEYES) | American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS) | Association Latino Americana de Cirujanos de Catarata y Segmento Anterior

Cornea and Corneal transplant

Cornea could be a clear dome-shaped structure at the front of the eye. It lies directly ahead of the iris and pupil, and it permits light-weight to enter the eye. It also plays a key role in vision. The tissue layer serves one primary purpose: to refract light-weight in through the pupil onto the membrane. It conjointly helps to protect the remainder of the eye from germs, dust, and alternative harmful matter. The tissue layer shares this protecting task with the eyelids, the attention socket, tears, and also the albuginea, or white a part of the eye

If the cornea is damaged by disease, infection, or an injury, the resulting scars can affect your vision. They might block or distort light as it enters the eye. Cornea is the target of the most common refractive surgeries, such as LASIK. 

Related Societies:

Asia Cornea Society | Swedish Ophthalmological Society | International Society of Geographic and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology (ISGEO) | International Society for Low Vision Research and Rehabilitation

Diabetic Retinopathy

This is a standard condition among the Diabetic population. In diabetic folks because the blood sugars levels are high, this have a tendency to cause harm to the blood vessels with within the retinal tissues of the attention. thanks to this harm the blood vessels could leak or swell or they for good get closed interference the blood provide which ends in blurred vision, poor night-sight and at last ends up in vision lose.

Early designation will forestall the bulk of Diabetic Retinopathy complications thus it's vital for folks with polygenic disorder to urge their vision check frequently, but within the advanced cases Focal optical maser treatment or surgical operation are performed within which the broken blood vessels are sealed their leaks.

Early diabetic retinopathy, Advanced diabetic retinopathy

Related Societies:

European Association for the Study of Diabetic Eye Complications | Finnish Ophthalmological Society | Brazilian Society of Ophthalmology | The Royal College of Ophthalmologists

Dry Eye Disease

Dry eye syndrome is caused by a chronic lack of ample lubrication and wetness on the surface of the eye. Consequences of dry eyes vary from delicate however constant eye irritation to important inflammation and even scarring of the front surface of the attention. Dry eye syndrome can also have an effect on the outcomes of LASIK and cataract surgery. Dry eyes will cause inflammation and (sometimes permanent) injury to the surface of the attention. Tests will reveal the number of tears behind the lid, whether or not the tear film is functioning properly, and therefore the rate of evaporation.

Treatment aims to stay the eyes well-greased, however the approach depends on the underlying cause. Steroid drops might facilitate scale back inflammation if symptoms stay severe, even when the frequent use of eye drops.

Related Societies:

International Society of Dacryology & Dry Eye | Mexican Society of Ophthalmology

Eye Disorders

Eye Disorders is the branch of the ophthalmic research which encompass on the study and research on eye related disease which leads to the loss of vision. There are different types of eye problems, some are minor and don’t present long. But some are long and leads to a permanent loss of vision.

Related Societies:

Algerian Ophthalmological Society | All India Ophthalmological Society


Glaucoma is one amongst the leading causes of visual defect for people over the age of sixty. it'll occur at any age but may be a heap of common in older adults. it's necessary to own regular eye exams that embody measurements of your eye pressure, thus a designation is often created in its early stages and treated befittingly. If disease is recognized early, vision loss is often slowed or prevented. The signs and symptoms of disease vary betting on the kind and stage of the patient’s condition.

Open-angle eye disease

Acute glaucoma

Pigmentary eye disease

Related Societies:

African Society of Glaucoma | Asian Angle Closure Glaucoma Club | Canadian Glaucoma Society | Greek Glaucoma Society | Hungarian Society of Ophthalmology | World Glaucoma Association | Asian Angle Closure Glaucoma Club | African Society of Glaucoma


Neuro-ophthalmology is a super specialty that combines neurology and ophthalmology areas. Neuro-ophthalmologists are accountable for diagnosing and managing complicated nervous systemic illnesses affecting vision, eye movements and alignment, as well as pupillary reflexes.

The causes of neuro-ophthalmology illnesses rely on the type: compression can be caused by a tumor. Diminished blood supply can be caused by hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia or smoking Inflammation (swelling) is often associated with illnesses that can influence other components of the body, such as connective tissue disease and multiple sclerosis.

Related Societies:

Asian Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (ASNOS) | Academia Ophthalmologica Belgica (AOB) | Academia Ophthalmologica Internationalis (AOI) | Academy of Asia-Pacific Professors of Ophthalmology

Ocular Oncology

Ocular Oncology deals with the treatment various cancerous tumors of the eye and surrounding structures. The commonest tumor of the eye occurs in children and is called ‘Retinoblastoma and intraocular melanoma, the most well-known eye malignancy in adults.

Related Societies:

Pan American Society of Ocular Oncology | Ophthalmic Oncology Group (OOG) | Asia Pacific Society of Ocular Oncology and Pathology

Ophthalmic Pathology

Ophthalmic pathology that deals with designation of the growth and non-neoplastic diseases of the eye. This ophthalmic diagnostician work closely with ophthalmic surgeon however they comprehend with the pathology ideas.

Related Societies:

Asia Pacific Society of Ocular medicine & Pathology (APSOOP) | European Ophthalmic Pathology Society (EOPS)


Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive

Ophthalmic plastic surgery is also called as Oculoplastic surgery. Oculoplastic are specialist within the reworking of the per orbital and facial tissues as well as the eyelids, eyebrows, forehead, cheeks, orbit and additionally deals with reconstruction of eye and its associated structure.

It additionally deals with the reconstruction of the eyelid, the attention socket, and close structures. As is obvious, trauma care involving the eye tissues and the bone surrounding the eye come under the purview of this sub-specialty. Oculoplastic health care provider will enhance and treat situations of the periocular location, whilst always thinking about the health of the eyes.

Related Societies:

American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Asia Pacific Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Ophthalmic Surgery

There is AN assortment of conditions which may entail eye surgery; from corrective changes to vision-sparing methods by surgeons. each treatment accompanies its own benefits, dangers, and signs to be used. From restorative medications to orbital inserts, today's headways will handle any condition and provides an efficient arrangement.

Oculoplastic & Orbital Surgery, LASIK Future Advances

LASIK, Latest Ophthalmic medical specialty Instruments

Strabismus Surgery&Glaucoma Surgery

Retinal Detachment Surgery&Vision Correction Surgery

Oculoplastic surgery

Related Societies:

Asia Pacific Vitreoretinal Society | Asia Pediatric Ophthalmologists Association (APOA)Bulgarian Society of Ophthalmology

Pediatric Ophthalmology

Pediatric ophthalmology is the medical science branch that deals with the growth of vision and care in children. Pediatric demands for vision care are extremely specific and require high attention and care. Pediatric ophthalmologists treat eye illnesses with dedicated care and attention in kids of different ages.

Related Societies:

American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | European Pediatric Ophthalmological Society | Indonesian Ophthalmologists Association (IOA)

Refractive Surgery

Vision correction surgery conjointly known as refractive and laser eye surgery, refers to any surgery accustomed fix vision issues. Refractive and laser eye surgery permit several patients to envision higher than the other time in their lives

LASIK, or optical maser unmoved keratomileusis, works for people who are myopic, farsighted, or have astigmatism.

PRK, or photorefractive keratectomy, is employed to correct delicate to moderate ametropia, longsightedness, or astigmatism.

RLE stands for refractive lens exchange. Other names include PRELEX, clear lens exchange (CLE), clear lens extraction (CLE), and refractive lens replacement (RLR). It’s the same as cataract surgery

A LASIK or LASIK-related procedure can be combined with RLE to correct astigmatism.

PRELEX, short for presbyopic lens exchange, is a procedure used for presbyopia, or loss of flexibility in your eye.

Related Societies:

European VitreoRetinal Society (EVRS) | German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) | Vitreo Retinal Society – India | Japan Ophthalmologists Association | Korean Ophthalmological Society

Retina and Retinal Detachment

The retina is a skinny layer of tissue that lines the rear of the attention on the within. It's placed near the optic nerve. The aim of the retina is to receive lightweight that the lens has centered, convert the sunshine into neural signals, and send these signals on to the brain for visual recognition.

Due to the retina's important role in vision, damage to it can cause permanent blindness. Conditions like detachment of the retina. detachment of the retina is an eye fixed disorder within which the retinal layer pulls off from its underlying layer of a vas or support tissue. Some common symptoms of a visual disorder area unit floaters, lightweight flashes, curtain-like shadow, blurred vision, reduced peripheral vision.

Related Societies:

Asia Pacific Vitreoretinal Society | Vitreo Retinal Society – India | Bulgarian Society of Ophthalmology | Asia Pacific Vitreoretinal Society | American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS) | Arab African Society of Retina Specialists


Strabismus is a failure of the two eyes to maintain proper alignment and work together as a team. One eye turns inwards, upwards, downwards, or outwards, while the other one focuses at one spot. This typically happens as a result of the muscles that management the movement of the attention and therefore the protective fold, the extraocular muscles, aren't operating along.

There are different types of strabismus

Hypertropia is once the eye turns upwards

Hypotropia is once the eye turns downwardly

Esotropia is once the eye turns inwards

Exotropia is once the eye turns outward.

The primary sign of abnormal condition may be a visible placement of the eyes, with one eye redeeming, out, up, down or at Associate in Nursing angle. Strabismus can be diagnosed throughout an eye fixed examination. A diagnosed squint or strabismus needs prompt treatment, otherwise there is a serious risk of complications, such as amblyopia (lazy eye)

Related Societies:

Associazione Italiana Strabismo | American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | European Strabismological Association (ESA) | Associazione Italiana Strabismo


Uveitis could be a form of inflammation to the center layer of the attention (uvea), structure typically contains the iris, membrane and choroid coat. The causes of uveitis area unit of various varieties starting from a straightforward microorganism Infection to severe eye injury, studies show that the presence of inflammatory disease, AIDS, skin condition will increase the probabilities of uveitis. during this the inner a part of the attention turns to red in color, thanks to this pain, blurred vision and picture sensitivity happens. Prompt use of anti-bacterial will treat the condition otherwise their area unit high probabilities that it should cause eye disease, cataract etc...

Anterior Uveitis

Intermediate Uveitis

Posterior Uveitis

Panuveitis Uveitis

Related Societies:

International Uveitis Study Group | European Contact Lens Society of Ophthalmologists (ECLSO) | Lithuanian Ophthalmological Society | Portuguese Society of Ophthalmology

Optometry and Vision Science

Optometry may be a tending profession that involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities in addition because the diagnosis and management of disease. historically, the sphere of practice began with the first focus of correcting refractive error through the utilization of spectacles. Vision science is Associate in Nursing knowledge domain study of visual systems and perception and incorporates several disciplines, as well as practice, medical specialty, genetics, neurobiology and physiological optics.

Color VisionMeasures of sense datum, Cognitive Vision

Visual Acuity and visual view, Occludes or Eye patches

Neuro-Visual medical care, Binocular Vision & Vision medical care

Related Societies:

European Contact Lens Society of Ophthalmologists (ECLSO) | Association of Ophthalmologists of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina | Israel Society for Vision and Eye Research

Vitreo-Retinal Eye Surgery

Vitreoretinal eye surgery includes a group of procedures performed deep inside the eye's interior with lasers or normal surgical instruments. A vitrectomy procedure removes the humour or gel-like substance inside the eye

Related Societies:

European VitreoRetinal Society (EVRS) | Asia Pacific Vitreoretina Society | American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS)

Ocular genetics

Ophthalmic genetic science could be a branch of medicine which deals with genetics behind the eye disorders and eye diseases, it’s additionally includes the several techniques in correcting the defective sequence.

Related Societies:

Asia-Pacific Society of Eye Genetics | Anglo-Spanish Ophthalmological Society | Algerian Ophthalmological Society

Ocular Regenerative Medicine

The eye is a standout amongst the most intriguing focuses for stem cell treatments. Stem cells present totally different potential applications in regenerative drugs and area unit the topic of extraordinary analysis. the eye is a captivating and promising focus for somatic cell treatments since it's a moderately immunologically favored and exactly open freelance system. Numerous visual illnesses, for example, corneal limbal stem cell insufficiency, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, or retinal dystrophies could be treated with the utilization of tissue building.

Related Societies:

Hong Kong Ophthalmological Society | Chinese Ophthalmological Society | Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology (APAO)


Ocular trauma

Some common eye injuries, like deep puncture wounds from accidents, might need immediate treatment or surgery to prevent permanent permanent eye injury leading to vision loss. Blunt or penetrating ocular trauma will cause vision loss through cataract or eye disease.

Related Societies:

Asia Pacific Ophthalmic Trauma Society | American Society of Ocular Trauma (ASOT) | Panamerican Society of Trauma (Sociedad Panamericana de Trauma) | All India Ophthalmological Society

Ocular Biomechanics

The eye is to be studied by eye biomechanics as a biomechanical construct. For the prevention and treatment of vision loss, ocular biomechanics is essential. The eye is a remarkably complex structure engaged in many of its tasks with biomechanics. For instance, eyes need a sensitive equilibrium of the forces exerted by multiple muscles to monitor moving items. Forces are also to blame for deforming the lens and allow focusing. A small imbalance between the forces and tissue properties could also be enough to change preclude vision.

Related Societies:

African Society of Glaucoma | Asian Angle Closure Glaucoma Club |Canadian Glaucoma Society | Greek Glaucoma Society | Hungarian Society of Ophthalmology | World Glaucoma Association | Asian Angle Closure Glaucoma Club | African Society of Glaucoma

Veterinary Ophthalmology

Veterinary ophthalmology is associate ophthalmic apply providing take care of companion animals. The veterinarians are treating dogs, cats and different little animals as well as rabbits, chinchillas, birds and reptiles, Horses and different sheep. Some veterinary eye diseases are given below.

Corneal ulceration, Corneal Dystrophy

Glaucoma, Retinal Detachment

Related Societies:

International Society of Veterinary Ophthalmology | European Society of Veterinary Ophthalmology