Vitreo-Retinal Eye Surgery

Vitreoretinal eye surgery includes a group of procedures performed deep inside the eye's interior with lasers or conventional surgical instruments. A vitrectomy procedure removes the vitreous humor or gel-like substance in the eye

Related Societies:

European VitreoRetinal Society (EVRS) | Asia Pacific Vitreoretina Society | American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS)


Ophthalmology is the specialty concerned with the medical and surgical care of the eye. Ophthalmologists are experts in medical treatment, surgery and microsurgery for eye conditions and diseases in addition to diagnosing systemic disease that manifest in eye signs or symptoms. Ophthalmology has many subspecialties.

Related Societies:

Academy of Asia-Pacific Professors of Ophthalmology | Afghanistan Society of Ophthalmology | African Ophthalmology Council (AOC) | All-Russian Association of Ophthalmologists | American Academy of Ophthalmology | American Ophthalmological Society | Argentinian Society of Ophthalmology | ASEAN Ophthalmology Society (AOS, Finnish Ophthalmological Society


A cataract is a cloudy area within the lens of the eye. Signs may have cataracts can include symptoms of decreased night vision, halos around lights, discolored vision, or sensitivity to glare.

There are 3 different types of cataract, namely:

A subscapular cataract occurs at the back of the lens. People with diabetes or those taking high doses of steroid medications have a greater risk of developing a subscapular cataract.

A nuclear cataract forms deep in the central zone (nucleus) of the lens. Nuclear cataracts usually are associated with aging.

A cortical cataract is characterized by white, wedge-like opacities that start in the periphery of the lens and work their way to the center in a spoke-like fashion. This type of cataract occurs in the lens cortex, which is the part of the lens that surrounds the central nucleus.

Cataract begins slowly and initially has very little effect on the vision. Cataract-surgery is the most common eye surgery conducted worldwide.

Related Societies:

Asia Pacific Association of Cataract Refractive Surgeons (APACRS) | International Uveitis Study Group | Pacific Eye Care Society (PacEYES) | American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS) | Association Latino Americana de Cirujanos de Catarata y Segmento Anterior

Cornea and Corneal transplant

Cornea is a transparent dome-shaped structure at the front of the eye. It lies directly in front of the iris and pupil, and it allows light to enter the eye. It also plays a key role in vision. The cornea serves one primary purpose: to refract light in through the pupil onto the retina. It also helps to shield the rest of the eye from germs, dust, and other harmful matter. The cornea shares this protective task with the eyelids, the eye socket, tears, and the sclera, or white part of the eye.

 If the cornea is damaged by disease, infection, or an injury, the resulting scars can affect your vision. They might block or distort light as it enters the eye. Cornea is the target of the most common refractive surgeries, such as LASIK. It is also an organ that is relatively easy to transplant.

Related Societies:

Asia Cornea Society | Swedish Ophthalmological Society | International Society of Geographic and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology (ISGEO) | International Society for Low Vision Research and Rehabilitation

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a serious, irreversible eye disease that can occur in people with diabetes, and is a leading cause of blindness around the world. Symptoms include blurred vision, difficulty seeing colors, floaters, and even total loss of vision.

There are two types of DR:

Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR): This is the milder form of diabetic retinopathy and is usually symptomless.

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR): PDR is the most advanced stage of diabetic retinopathy and refers to the formation of new, abnormal blood vessels in the retina. Damage to the network of blood vessels that nourish the retina is the key cause of diabetic retinopathy.

The treatment depends on type and severity of retinopathy. Photocoagulation surgery can help prevent vision loss. The goal of any treatment is to slow or stop the progression of the disease.

Related Societies:

European Association for the Study of Diabetic Eye Complications | Finnish Ophthalmological Society | Brazilian Society of Ophthalmology | The Royal College of Ophthalmologists

Dry Eye Disease

Dry eye syndrome is caused by a chronic lack of sufficient lubrication and moisture on the surface of the eye. Consequences of dry eyes range from subtle but constant eye irritation to significant inflammation and even scarring of the front surface of the eye. Dry eye syndrome also can affect the outcomes of LASIK and cataract surgery. Dry eyes can cause inflammation and (sometimes permanent) damage to the surface of the eye. Tests can reveal the quantity of tears behind the eyelid, whether the tear film is functioning properly, and the rate of evaporation.

Treatment aims to keep the eyes well lubricated, but the approach depends on the underlying cause. Steroid drops may help reduce inflammation if symptoms remain severe, even after the frequent use of eye drops.

Related Societies:

International Society of Dacryology & Dry Eye |  Mexican Society of Ophthalmology

Eye Disorders

Eye Disorders is the branch of the ophthalmic research which encompass on the study and research on eye related disease which leads to the loss of vision. There are different types of eye problems, some are minor and don’t present long. But some are long and leads to a permanent loss of vision.

Related Societies:

Algerian Ophthalmological Society | All India Ophthalmological Society


Glaucoma is a disease that is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure which causes damage to the optic nerve and can lead to loss of vision and even blindness. Glaucoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. The vision damage is so gradual that people may not even notice it until it has reached an advanced stage. It is estimated that nearly half of those affected by glaucoma do not know they are afflicted. A family history of glaucoma is at an increased risk of the disease

Glaucoma is of various types. The most common is open-angle glaucoma, followed by closed-angle glaucoma and normal tension glaucoma.

The causes of glaucoma are not well known but genetics may play a role in the development of this condition. Increased pressure in the eye called increased intraocular pressure is the biggest indicator for development of glaucoma. Other secondary causes include trauma to the eye, steroid use, diabetes, and diseases that restrict blood flow.

Related Societies:

African Society of Glaucoma | Asian Angle Closure Glaucoma Club | Canadian Glaucoma Society | Greek Glaucoma Society | Hungarian Society of Ophthalmology | World Glaucoma Association | Asian Angle Closure Glaucoma Club | African Society of Glaucoma

Macular Degeneration

Macular Degeneration is caused by the deterioration of the central portion of the retina, the inside back layer of the eye that records the images we see and sends them via the optic nerve from the eye to the brain. The retina’s central portion, known as the macula, is responsible for focusing central vision in the eye, and it controls our ability to read, drive a car, recognize faces or colors, and see objects in fine detail. Macular Degeneration is that the causes are complex, but include both heredity and environment. Dry macular degeneration is diagnosed when yellowish spots known as drusen begin to accumulate in and around the macula. It is believed these spots are deposits or debris from deteriorating tissue.

Age-related macular degeneration usually produces a slow, painless loss of vision. In rare cases, however, vision loss can be sudden. Early signs of vision loss from AMD include shadowy areas in your central vision or unusually fuzzy or distorted vision. Treatments for macular degeneration depend on whether the disease is in its early-stage, dry form or in the more advanced, wet form that can lead to serious vision loss. No FDA-approved treatments exist yet for dry macular degeneration, although nutritional intervention may help prevent its progression to the wet form.

Related Societies:

Colombian Society of Ophthalmology | Danish Ophthalmological Society | Egyptian Ophthalmological Society


Neuro-ophthalmology is a super specialty that combines neurology and ophthalmology areas. Neuro-ophthalmologists are accountable for diagnosing and managing complicated nervous systemic illnesses affecting vision, eye movements and alignment, as well as pupillary reflexes.

The causes of neuro-ophthalmology illnesses rely on the type: compression can be caused by a tumor. Diminished blood supply can be caused by hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia or smoking Inflammation (swelling) is often associated with illnesses that can influence other components of the body, such as connective tissue disease and multiple sclerosis.

Related Societies:

Asian Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (ASNOS) | Academia Ophthalmologica Belgica (AOB) | Academia Ophthalmologica Internationalis (AOI) | Academy of Asia-Pacific Professors of Ophthalmology

Ocular Oncology

Ocular Oncology deals with the treatment various cancerous tumors of the eye and surrounding structures. The commonest tumor of the eye occurs in children and is called ‘Retinoblastoma and intraocular melanoma, the most well-known eye malignancy in adults.

Related Societies:

Pan American Society of Ocular Oncology | Ophthalmic Oncology Group (OOG) | Asia Pacific Society of Ocular Oncology and Pathology

Ophthalmic Pathology

Ophthalmic pathology which deals with diagnosis of the neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the eye. This ophthalmic pathologist work closely with ophthalmic surgeon but they encompass with the pathology concepts.

Related Societies:

Asia Pacific Society of Ocular Oncology & Pathology (APSOOP) | European Ophthalmic Pathology Society (EOPS)

Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive

Ophthalmic plastic surgery is also called as Oculoplastic surgery. Oculoplastic are specialist in the remodeling of the per orbital and facial tissues including the eyelids, eyebrows, forehead, cheeks, orbit and also deals with reconstruction of eye and its associated structure.

It also deals with the reconstruction of the eyelid, the eye socket, and surrounding structures. As is obvious, trauma care involving the eye tissues and the bone surrounding the eye come under the purview of this sub-specialty. Oculoplastic health care provider will enhance and treat situations of the periocular location, whilst always thinking about the health of the eyes.

Related Societies:

American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Asia Pacific Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Ophthalmic Surgery

Commonly known as ocular surgery, eye surgery includes surgical procedures on the eye or the area immediately surrounding it, including the eyelids. Performed by an ophthalmologist, eye surgery addresses a specific ocular ailment or is designed to improve the sharpness and clarity of vision.

LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situkeratomileusis), commonly referred to as laser eye surgery or laser vision correction, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. The LASIK surgery is performed by an ophthalmologist who uses a laser or microkeratome to reshape the eye's cornea in order to improve visual acuity

Related Societies:

Asia Pacific Vitreoretinal Society | Asia Pediatric Ophthalmologists Association (APOA)Bulgarian Society of Ophthalmology

Pediatric Ophthalmology

Pediatric ophthalmology is the medical science branch that deals with the growth of vision and care in children. Pediatric demands for vision care are extremely specific and require high attention and care. Pediatric ophthalmologists treat eye illnesses with dedicated care and attention in kids of different ages.

Related Societies:

American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | European Pediatric Ophthalmological Society | Indonesian Ophthalmologists Association (IOA)

Refractive Surgery

Vision correction surgery also called refractive and laser eye surgery, refers to any surgical procedure used to fix vision problems. Refractive and laser eye surgery allow many patients to see better than any other time in their lives

LASIK, or laser in-situ keratomileusis, works for people who are nearsighted, farsighted, or have astigmatism.

PRK, or photorefractive keratectomy, is used to correct mild to moderate nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism.

RLE stands for refractive lens exchange. Other names include PRELEX, clear lens exchange (CLE), clear lens extraction (CLE), and refractive lens replacement (RLR). It’s the same as cataract surgery

A LASIK or LASIK-related procedure can be combined with RLE to correct astigmatism.

PRELEX, short for presbyopic lens exchange, is a procedure used for presbyopia, or loss of flexibility in your eye.

Related Societies:

European VitreoRetinal Society (EVRS) | German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) | Vitreo Retinal Society – India | Japan Ophthalmologists Association | Korean Ophthalmological Society

Retina and Retinal Detachment

The retina is a thin layer of tissue that lines the back of the eye on the inside. It is located near the optic nerve. The purpose of the retina is to receive light that the lens has focused, convert the light into neural signals, and send these signals on to the brain for visual recognition.

Due to the retina's vital role in vision, damage to it can cause permanent blindness. Conditions such as retinal detachment. Retinal detachment is an eye disorder in which the retinal layer pulls away from its underlying layer of a blood vessel or support tissue. Some common symptoms of a detached retina are floaters, light flashes, curtain-like shadow, blurred vision, reduced peripheral vision.

Related Societies:

Asia Pacific Vitreoretinal Society | Vitreo Retinal Society – India | Bulgarian Society of Ophthalmology | Asia Pacific Vitreoretinal Society | American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS) | Arab African Society of Retina Specialists


Strabismus is a failure of the two eyes to maintain proper alignment and work together as a team. One eye turns inwards, upwards, downwards, or outwards, while the other one focuses at one spot. This usually occurs because the muscles that control the movement of the eye and the eyelid, the extraocular muscles, are not working together.

There are different types of strabismus

Hypertropia is when the eye turns upwards

Hypotropia is when the eye turns downwards

Esotropia is when the eye turns inwards

Exotropia is when the eye turns outwards.

The primary sign of strabismus is a visible misalignment of the eyes, with one eye turning in, out, up, down or at an oblique angle. Strabismus can be diagnosed during an eye examination. A diagnosed squint or strabismus needs prompt treatment, otherwise there is a serious risk of complications, such as amblyopia (lazy eye)

Related Societies:

Associazione Italiana Strabismo | American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | European Strabismological Association (ESA) | Associazione Italiana Strabismo


Uveitis (pronounced you-vee-EYE-tis) is inflammation of the uvea the middle layer of the eye

Uveitis can have many causes, including eye injury and inflammatory diseases. Exposure to toxic chemicals such as pesticides and acids used in manufacturing processes also can cause uveitis

There are different types of uveitis.

Anterior uveitis is also known as iritis, affects the colored part of the eye, the iris. Iridocyclitis is similar, but it includes inflammation of the ciliary body.

Intermediate uveitis can be vitritis or pars planitis. Vitritis is an inflammation of the jelly-like part of the eye, the vitreous cavity. An inflammation of the pars plana is called pars planitis.

Posterior uveitis is an inflammation of the retina and choroid. Posterior refers to the back of the eye.

Pan-uveitis is an inflammation in all layers of the uvea. Treatment for uveitis depends on the cause and the type of uveitis. Usually, it’s treated with eye drops. If uveitis is caused by another condition, treating that underlying condition may eliminate the uveitis.

Related Societies:

International Uveitis Study Group | European Contact Lens Society of Ophthalmologists (ECLSO) | Lithuanian Ophthalmological Society | Portuguese Society of Ophthalmology

Optometry and Vision Science

Optometry is the visual science that deals with the examination of the human eye for estimation of refractive errors and prescription of glasses, fitting and manufacturing of Contact lenses, Low Vision Aids, Orthoptics (eye exercises) and other Optical aids. Optometrists examine, diagnose, treat, and manage injuries, diseases, and disorders of the nervous system, the eye, and associated structures in addition to identify related conditions affecting the eye.

Vision science encloses all studies of vision, such as how human and non-human organisms’ process visual information, how conscious visual perception works in humans, how to exploit visual perception for effective communication, and how artificial systems can do the same tasks. Vision science overlaps with or encompasses disciplines such as ophthalmology and optometry, neuroscience, psychology, optics and computer vision, etc.

Related Societies:

European Contact Lens Society of Ophthalmologists (ECLSO) | Association of Ophthalmologists of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina | Israel Society for Vision and Eye Research

Ocular genetics

Ophthalmic genetics is a branch of medicine which deals with genetics behind the eye disorders and eye diseases, it is also includes the several techniques in correcting the defective gene.

Related Societies:

Asia-Pacific Society of Eye Genetics | Anglo-Spanish Ophthalmological Society | Algerian Ophthalmological Society

Ocular Regenerative Medicine

The eye is a standout amongst the most intriguing focuses for stem cell treatments. Stem cells present different potential applications in regenerative medicine and are the subject of extraordinary research. The eye is an entrancing and promising focus for stem cell treatments since it is a moderately immunologically favored and precisely open independent system. Numerous visual illnesses, for example, corneal limbal stem cell insufficiency, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, or retinal dystrophies could be treated with the utilization of tissue building.

Related Societies:

Hong Kong Ophthalmological Society | Chinese Ophthalmological Society | Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology (APAO)


Ocular trauma

Some common eye injuries, such as deep puncture wounds from accidents, could require immediate treatment or surgery to prevent permanent eye damage resulting in vision loss. Blunt or penetrating ocular trauma can lead to vision loss through cataract or glaucoma.

 Related Societies:

 Asia Pacific Ophthalmic Trauma Society | American Society of Ocular Trauma (ASOT) | Panamerican Society of Trauma (Sociedad Panamericana de Trauma) | All India Ophthalmological Society

Ocular Biomechanics

The eye is to be studied by eye biomechanics as a biomechanical construct. For the prevention and treatment of vision loss, ocular biomechanics is essential. The eye is a remarkably complex structure engaged in many of its tasks with biomechanics. For instance, eyes need a sensitive equilibrium of the forces exerted by multiple muscles to monitor moving items. Forces also are liable for deforming the lens and permit focusing. A slight imbalance between the forces and tissue properties may be enough to alter preclude vision.

Related Societies:

African Society of Glaucoma | Asian Angle Closure Glaucoma Club |Canadian Glaucoma Society | Greek Glaucoma Society | Hungarian Society of Ophthalmology | World Glaucoma Association | Asian Angle Closure Glaucoma Club | African Society of Glaucoma